Cover the seeds lightly with the germination medium because light is required for germination. Pappus (pl. Landscape Uses: Use Small’s Beardtongue in perennial borders, hummingbird and butterfly gardens or wildflower meadows. Germination should occur in two to four weeks.Division: Divide plants from late winter to early spring. Loose clusters of rose-pink flowers, 1 inch across with five wedge-shaped petals, are borne in mid-summer on sticky stems rising 10 inches above the plant. Landscape Uses: Hairy Phlox is a tough, drought-tolerant plant. Habitat: Moist forests, wet meadows and riverbanks, Native To: Maine to Minnesota, south to Mississippi, east to Georgia. They grow rapidly and flower from March to May before the leaves on the canopy trees are fully expanded and when light levels reaching the forest floor are highest. The plant is the larval host for the Gorgone Checkerspot butterfly and the Bordered Patch butterfly. There are about 16 species of Monarda native to North America. Division: Divide plants in the fall or winter by breaking apart segments of the rhizomes. Patience is required because new seedlings may not appear until the second or third spring after sowing. The barbed nutlets adhere to the clothing of hikers in autumn. To produce fertile seeds, phlox must be crossed with another seed-grown plant of the same species. Characteristics: A slender stalk, 4 to 8 inches tall, has basal leaves and a terminal whorl of three leaflets, each divided into three to five narrow, sharply toothed segments. Each stalk bears one to three flowers. Allow the foliage to remain after flowering to feed the bulb and developing bulblets. Landscape Uses: Jack-in-the-pulpit prefers a shady woodland garden with plenty of moisture. Otherwise, staking may be required to prevent plants from flopping over. Also, the flowers of I. verna appear before the foliage, while those of I. cristata appear after the foliage. They require cold stratification followed by warm stratification, then cold stratification, then warm again. Scarification: To slit or soften the outer covering of seed to hasten germination. Native To: Minnesota to Maine, south to Florida, west to Mississippi. Flowers are followed by berry-like fruit that turn attractive bright blue as they mature and persist into fall. A group of three to five plants provides an eye-catching display. Comments: The flowers attract hummingbirds and bees. Once established, it is drought-tolerant and low-maintenance. Cultural Requirements: Swamp Milkweed is easy to grow in moist, well-drained soil and full sun. They are 3 inches long, 3⁄4 inch wide and woolly. This publication is intended to be a quick guide for plant enthusiasts of North Georgia. Treat them with a rooting hormone to enhance rooting. Is DNA Like a Blueprint, a Computer Program, or a List of Ingredients? Size: 1 to 3 feet tall with a spread of 1 to 2 feet, Habitat: Open fields, prairies, plains, savannahs, roadsides and woodland edges, Native To: Most of the Continental U.S., except Nevada and Arizona. Each flower has five lobes that are fused together. Prune the top of each division to its basal leaves. The ants carry the seeds back to their nests where they germinate and establish new colonies. It can become aggressive in moist soils. In spring, small tubular greenish-white flowers are bone in pairs at the leaf axils on the upper portionof the stalks. Size: 2 to 3 feet high with a spread of 1 to 2 feet, Habitat: Savannahs, sand hills and grassy openings in pine-oak woodlands with dry, sandy soil, Native To: Louisiana to Florida, north to Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Size: 3 to 4 feet tall and 3 to 4 feet wide, Native To: New Hampshire, south to Georgia, west to Texas, north to Nebraska, Iowa and Michigan. http://www.wildflower.org/, Learn2Grow.com. Germination should occur in about two weeks.Cuttings: Stem cuttings can be taken throughout the year. Store the seeds dry at 40°F for two months before planting them in outdoor flats. Celebrating Wildflowers. Variations in microclimates may extend the growing range north or south of the zone listed. Cultural Requirements: Spider Lily is best grown in moist to wet soils in full sun or partial shade. Theplant spreads by seeds and rhizomes; however, it is not aggressive. Cultural Requirements: Fire Pink prefers well-drained acidic soil and partial shade. The flowers attract a variety of butterflies. Maintain a temperature of 70°F or higher during germination. Cultural Requirements: Small’s Beardtongue prefers moist, acidic, well-drained sandy soil and sun to partial shade. Cultural Requirements: Cup Plant prefers full sun and moist, well-drained soil. Apply mulch to conserve moisture. Fruit are urn-shaped capsules with four pointed lobes at their tops. Characteristics: Leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, divided and sometimes re-divided into lance-shaped or oval leaflets that are finely toothed along their margins. Comments: Leaves are aromatic and were used as a tea substitute by Native Americans and early settlers. Today there are many improved cultivars of the native species offering even more variety for the native plant enthusiast. They also crushed the leaves and bulbs and used the sap to dress wounds. They are oblong in shape, 3 to 4 inches long and 2 to 3 inches wide. Propagation: Seed, cuttings or divisionSeed: Collect seed capsules in fall when they turn brown. In late summer, clusters of yellow flowers, 1 inch across, appear on terminal stems. Cuttings: Take stem cuttings in the spring when new growth begins to harden.Division: Divide plants in late winter. Store them dry for four months at 40oF before planting them in outdoor beds or flats. Light is required for germination, so cover the seeds lightly with the germination medium. Cultural Requirements: Plant Scaly Blazing Star in full sun. Leaves are opposite, rough textured, coarsely toothed along their margins and triangular to oval. They are borne in long, slender prickly pods. From June to September, yellow sunflower-like flower heads, about 3 inches across, are borne on stem terminals. Cultural Requirements: Gopherweed prefers moist, fertile, acidic, well-drained soil in full sun. Cultural Requirements: Nodding Beggarticks likes partial shade and moist, well-drained soil. It adapts to sun or partial shade. For more information, visit the Language Translation page. Leaves are approximately 2 inches long, 1-inch wide and lance-shaped. Stigma: The tip of a pistil, usually expanded and sticky, that receives pollen. Flower spikes, 6 to 12 inches long, appear in June on the tips of stems. Landscape Uses: Orange Coneflower looks particularly nice when used in mass plantings to create bold, colorful drifts in perennial borders and naturalized areas. Since its leaves are evergreen, it looks good year-round. Seeds are borne in a single fleshy capsule that follows the flower. Cultural Requirements: Soapwort Gentian needs constant moisture and good drainage. Flowers are borne along one side of a terminal spike that is 8 to 12 inches long. Habitat: Rocky sites, dry open prairies and woodland edges, Native To: Texas to Florida, north to New Jersey, west to Michigan. They may take up to two years to germinate.Cuttings: Stem cuttings can be taken any time of year. A few wildflowers are aggressive and spread by creeping underground stems, called rhizomes, or by above-groundrunners, called stolons. Native Plants for Georgia Part III: Wildflowers. Store them dry at 40°F for January planting in outdoor flats or beds. Long thin pods bear the seeds. Seeds require no pre-treatment, so plant them right away, or store them dry at 40°F for planting in outdoor beds or flats the following spring. Seeds are borne in cone-shaped capsules at the base of the flowers. In shade or under dry conditions, the plant tends to get leggy and flop, so it may require staking to hold it upright. Native To: Maine to North Dakota, south to Arkansas, east to Georgia. Characteristics: This is a twining, climbing or trailing vine with a tough, elongated root. In August, flat-top clusters of bright yellow flowerheads are borne at the tops of stems. Place them in a paper bag to dry and release their seeds, then sow the seeds in outdoor beds or flats. Comments: Flowers hold up well as cut flowers. Germination should occur in about three months.Cuttings: Take cuttings from firm new growth.Division: Plants can be divided in fall or early spring. Propagation: Seed, cuttings or divisionSeed: Cut off flower stalks when they turn brown, then place them in a paper bag to dry and release their seeds. Flowers of this species are larger than those of Maryland Meadow Beauty. The fruit is an achene (a small, dry fruit with one seed that does not split open when ripe). Comments: Two species of Echinacea are native to more neutral or calcium-rich soils in the Southeast, and both occur in Georgia. It also needs abundant moisture and sunlight. The plants are undesirable to deer. Comments: Pink Turtlehead has good deer resistance. After removing the seeds from their pods, soak them overnight in tepid water before planting them in outdoor beds or flats. It spreads slowly and is not aggressive. In spring, pale blue flowers with gold crests appear on short stalks. Fruit are achenes covered with silky hairs. Store them dry at 40°F for planting in December or January in outdoor beds or flats. Propagation: Seed, cuttings or divisionSeed: Collect seeds in the fall when fruit are dark blue and becoming soft. No pre-treatment is required.Division: Established plants can be divided in late winter. Remove the seeds and store them dry at 40°F for planting in November or December. Each leaf is 3 to 8 inches long and oval, with smooth margins. Size: A single plant can grow up to 2 feet across. Comments: White Wild Indigo is easy to grow. From late April to June, numerous tubular dark-pink to rosy-lavender flowers with a white throat appear at the leaf axils along the stem. Landscape Uses: Use White Wild Indigo in water-smart gardens (gardens designed with water conservation in mind), naturalized areas, butterfly gardens or perennial borders. Seeds bear nutrient-rich appendages that attract ants. The leaflets fold together when touched. They emit a licorice-like scent when crushed. From April to June, erect flowering stems emerge from basal runners and bear flat clusters of fragrant tubular flowers. Five that are worthy of landscape culture are described below. It is drought tolerant once established. Rhizome: (noun) An underground stem that is usually horizontal in position and frequently woody or fleshy. Its sap is clear. Landscape Uses: This plant is a good candidate for low water-use gardens, roadside plantings and wildflower meadows. Cover them very lightly because they need light to germinate. Division: Divide plants in early spring. Fertile seeds are plump and look like a horned mask. Size: 6 to 8 feet tall and 2 to 3 feet wide, Habitat: Moist, open woodlands, meadows, mesic prairies, disturbed sites and stream banks, Native To: Most of North America, with the exception of Florida, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Idaho. It thrives in sunny wetlands. Sow the seeds in outdoor beds or flats. Each flower head is subtended by a whorl of pale-pink leafy bracts. Characteristics: Leaves are alternate, oval to lance-shaped, 2 to 4 inches long and 1 to 2 inches wide. Cut back plants in early spring to encourage new growth for the season. This plant self-seeds readily, so it is good for naturalizing in an area. Propagation: Seed or cuttingsSeed: Harvest seeds when pods turn tan but seeds inside are still green. Serrate / serrated: Toothed along the leaf margins. Bright scarlet flowers arise from the upper leaf margins throughout the growing season. They can be planted right away if temperatures of 70°F or higher can be provided during germination. Lip: A lip-shaped corolla, calyx or petal. It is deciduous and dies back in winter. Divide plants in the fall, leaving at least one bud on each piece of rhizome. Habit: Tendency of a plant to grow in a certain way. In late summer, small yellow flowers are borne in clusters along the top 12 inches of branched stems. Characteristics: The lowermost and uppermost leaves are usually opposite on the stem, while the middle leaves are in whorls of four around the stem. Propagation: Seed, cuttings or divisionSeed: Collect seed capsules when they turn tan and begin to open at their tip (April to May). Each flower is approximately 1⁄2 inch across. Leaves toward the top of the plant are more dissected than those at the bottom. Landscape Uses: Use Pink Turtlehead in shaded bogs, woodland gardens or along pond edges. They are daisy-like with yellow ray flowers approximately 3⁄4 inch long that surround dark yellow disk flowers (see Figure 4). No pre-treatment of the seeds is required before planting. Landscape Uses: Use this plant in moist, shaded woodlands and shaded perennial borders. Slugs like to eat this plant. Habitat: Moist, fertile wooded slopes and flood plains, Native To: Maryland to Missouri and Oklahoma, south to Mississippi and Georgia. Landscape Uses: Eastern Shooting Star is an excellent choice for shady, moist rock gardens or perennial borders. Temperatures of 70°F orhigher will enhance germination.Cuttings: Take stem cuttings of new spring growth when itbegins to harden.Division: Divide plants in late winter or early spring. Lance-shaped: Elongated, broadest below the middle and gradually pointed toward the tip. Some are annuals and some are perennials. Flowers appear in loose clusters on stem tips from April to early May. Powdery mildew disease can be a problem. Comments: White Turtlehead leaves are a food source forthe larvae of the Baltimore Checkerspot butterfly. Brown-eyed Susan is a 1997 Georgia Gold Medal Winner. Native To: Massachusetts to Wisconsin, south to Texas and Florida. Landscape Uses: Use Dwarf Violet Iris in the front of a perennial border where it can be seen. They are borne in clusters at the top of stems from July to September. Furthermore, flowers of I. verna are more fragrant than those of I. cristata. Good drainage is essential. Prompt dead-heading after bloom encourages repeat flowering and prevents re-seeding. For this reason, germination may take up to two years.Cuttings: Root cuttings may be taken in the fall.Division: The plants can be divided in early spring as new growth begins. Crimson-red tubular flowers appear at stem terminals in the spring. Comments: The name “skullcap” describes the shape of the calyx at the base of the flowers, which resemble miniature medieval helmets called skullcaps. If self-seeding is not desired, deadhead after flowering. Goldenrods are self-sterile, so they must cross with different plants of the same species to produce viable seed. This is a tough plant and is easy to grow. They are dispersed by wind. Characteristics: Basal leaves are spoon-shaped (narrow toward the base and widening to a broad, rounded tip). Seeds are slow to germinate, so do not expect seedlings until the following spring.Division: Plants can be divided in spring or late fall. Seeds are borne in capsules. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. Easyliving Native Perennial Wildflowers, http://www.easywildflowers.com/, Encyclopedia of Life. Cultural Requirements: Partridge-berry prefers partial shade and humus-enriched acidic soil. Size: 2 to 6 feet tall (extremely variable), Habitat: Low woods, meadows, old once-cultivated fields, pine barrens and bogs, Native To: Eastern North America from Maine to Florida, west to Texas, north to Michigan. Furthermore, regionally-adapted native plants have developed a natural resistance to pests and a tolerance to drought, ice storms and other environmental extremes common to the area. Cultural Requirements: Plant Pink-scale Blazing Star in sun and sandy soil. Characteristics: Canadian Wild Ginger has two heart-shaped, hairy basal leaves up to 6 inches wide. It self-seeds under optimum conditions, so deadheading is recommended if seed dispersal is not desired. Cultural Requirements: This plant is easy to grow in moist, well-drained soils and partial shade. Cultural Requirements: New England Aster prefers moist, well-drained soil and full sun to partial shade. They require light to germinate, so cover them lightly with the germination medium.Cuttings: Stem cuttings can be taken in May. Flowering occurs in late summer and lasts one to two months. Self-seeding occurs, and it may produce many plants. Treat them with a rooting hormone to enhance rooting. Leaves along the stem are smaller than the basal leaves and oval in shape. The leaf is divided into five to 15 unequal leaflets and arranged palmately (like the upturned palm of a hand). A few cultivars, such as ‘Jacob Cline,’ have good resistance to powdery mildew. Both ray and disk flowers are yellow. This is an easy plant to grow, and the attractive foliage is worth the effort. hort.uga.edu/, University of Oklahoma Department of Botany & Microbiology. Each segment should have at least one growing point and fibrous roots. Each stem produces a solitary terminal flower above a whorl of leaves. Landscape Uses: This is one of the most interesting plants to have at the back of a perennial border or butterfly/hummingbird garden. Each segment should haveat least one growing point and fibrous roots. Disk flowers are yellow. Seeds are borne in capsules. Habitat: Stream banks, rich forests, woodlands and woodland borders. Creeping stolons help the plant spread several feet in all directions. Propagation: Seed or cuttingsSeed: Collect seeds in fall. Comments: Dense Blazing Star is a favorite flower of the florist trade because it holds up well in floral arrangements. Tenaglia, Dan. Division: Plants can be divided in spring or fall. The ants take the seeds to their nest, feed the appendages to their young and discard the seeds in a trash pile within their nest where they germinate in the nutrient-rich compost. Note, however, that Wild Indigo crosses readily, so if there is a species planted adjacent to another one, the seed-grown offspring might not resemble the parent. Habitat: Bottomlands, granite and limestone outcrops, ditches, wet woods and moist meadows, Native To: Southeast Virginia to Florida and Mississippi. The plant dies down and goes dormant in late spring. Researchers are currently investigating the root’s value in treating certain forms of cancer. Disk flower: Any of the tiny tubular flowers forming the center of the flower head of certain plants of the Asteraceae family, such as the daisy. Propagation: Seed, cuttings or divisionSeed: Collect seeds in fall and plant them right away. Propagation: SeedSeed: Collect pods when they turn tan and begin to split. When given these conditions, the plant will thrive. Once established, it is drought tolerant. http://www.dmr. Store the seeds dry at 40°F for two months before planting them in outdoor flats. Characteristics: This clump-forming perennial has stiff branched stems bearing dark-green lance-shaped leaves up to 11 inches long. All parts of Jack-in-the-pulpit contain calcium oxalate crystals and should not be ingested. Habitat: Low, rich woods, wet fields, seepage areas, alluvial thickets and grassy roadsides, Native To: Most of the Continental U.S. except Oregon, Nevada and California. Native Plants for Georgia Part IV: Grasses and Sedges. It will grow in average garden soil and is drought tolerant once established. Landscape Uses: Use Eastern Columbine in wildflower meadows, butterfly and hummingbird gardens or in woodlands having filtered shade. Landscape Uses: White Milkweed is a good plant for butterfly gardens, rock gardens and wildflower meadows. The flowers have greenish throats. Habitat: Rich hardwood forests, bottomlands and moist meadows, Native To: Maine to Minnesota, south to Texas, east to Florida. Propagation: Seed or divisionSeed: Collect seeds three to four weeks after flowering. Flowers are large, up to 6 inches across, with five pinkish-white petals and a crimson throat. The reasons for this are many and varied. Those most worthy of landscape culture are described here. Comments: The genus Osmorhiza means odorous root in Greek, in reference to the licorice scent given off by the root when it is crushed. Get A FREE Catalog. Propagation: Seed, cuttings or divisionSeed: Collect seeds in the fall. It requires some water during dry periods. Landscape Uses: Water gardens, pond edges and bogs, Size: 4 feet tall and 12 to 18 inches wide, Habitat: Freshwater marshes, cypress swamps, ditches and lake edges, Native To: North Carolina to Florida, west to Texas, north to Arkansas. Pistil: The seed-bearing organ of a flower, including the stigma, style and ovary. It spreads aggressively under moist conditions. Characteristics: Kidneyleaf Rosinweed bears a rosette of large deeply lobed basal leaves with distinct red veins. It also is a good plant for wildlife habitats. Stem leaves are shorter than basal leaves and gradually decrease in size as they ascend the stem. Native To: New Jersey west to Missouri, south to Texas, east to Florida. White snapdragon-like flowers tinged with pink appear in terminal clusters from August to October. Remove silky tails from the seeds, then store the seeds dry at 40°F for four to six months. No pre-treatment of the seeds is required before planting. Characteristics: Basal leaves are soft, hairy and toothed along their margins. It may need some support to stand upright when grown in shade. Foliage is usually found only on the lower half of the stem. Flower heads appear in spring and are daisy-like, with bright yellow ray flowers surrounding golden yellow disk flowers. The narrow inflorescence consists of numerous showy yellow com-pound flowers, each about 1⁄4 inch across. Dip the cut ends in a rooting hormone to enhance rooting.Division: Root division can be done in fall or early spring. Palmate: A leaf that is radially lobed, like the spokes of a wheel. They provide an interesting accent to the winter landscape. Each disk flower is about 1⁄4 inch long, narrow and tubular, with five small triangular lobes at its top. Comments: The plant attracts hummingbirds and butterflies. Still another species, Cutleaf Prairie Dock, S. pinnatifidum, has single leaves that are always oriented north-south. like workshops, classes, consultation, certifications, camps, and educator Characteristics: Pink Turtlehead is an upright, clump-forming plant that spreads by rhizomes. Spent blossoms and seed heads provide food for birds. It is a great plant for perennial borders and wildflower meadows. 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